Westminster Shorter Catechism


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Questions 81-100 


(All citings from the Westminster Shorter Catechism 1643-1647 are under Copyright 1991 by BibleWorks, LLC. All rights reserved.   Used by permission.)


WSC 81 ▬ What is forbidden in the tenth commandment?

A. The tenth commandment forbiddeth all discontentment with our own estate,(1) envying or grieving at the good of our neighbour,(2) and all inordinate motions and affections to any thing that is his.(3)

(1) 1 Kings 21:4; Esther 5:13; 1 Cor. 10:10

(2) Gal. 5:26; James 3:14,16

(3) Rom. 7:7,8; Rom. 13:9; Deut. 5:21


WSC 82 ▬ Is any man able perfectly to keep the commandments of God?

A. No mere man since the fall is able in this life perfectly to keep the commandments of God,(1) but doth daily break them in thought, word, and deed.(2)

(1) Eccl. 7:20; 1 John 1:8,10; Gal. 5:17

(2) Gen. 6:5; Gen. 8:21; Rom. 3:9-21; James 3:2-13


WSC 83 ▬ Are all transgressions of the law equally heinous?

A. Some sins in themselves, and by reason of several aggravations, are more heinous in the sight of God than others.(1)

(1) Ezek. 8:6,13,15; 1 John 5:16; Ps. 78:17,32,56


WSC 84 ▬ What doth every sin deserve?

A. Every sin deserveth God's wrath and curse, both in this life, and that which is to come.(1)

(1) Eph. 5:6; Gal. 3:10; Lam. 3:39; Matt. 25:41


WSC 85 ▬ What doth God require of us, that we may escape his wrath and curse due to us for sin?

A. To escape the wrath and curse of God due to us for sin, God requireth of us faith in Jesus Christ, repentance unto life,(1) with the diligent use of all the outward means whereby Christ communicateth to us the benefits of redemption.(2)

(1) Acts 20:21

(2) Prov. 2:1-5; Prov. 8:33-36; Isa. 55:3


WSC 86 ▬ What is faith in Jesus Christ?

A. Faith in Jesus Christ is a saving grace,(1) whereby we receive and rest upon him alone for salvation, as he is offered to us in the gospel.(2)

(1) Heb. 10:39

(2) John 1:12; Isa. 26:3,4; Phil. 3:9; Gal. 2:16


WSC 87 ▬ What is repentance unto life?

A. Repentance unto life is a saving grace,(1) whereby a sinner, out of a true sense of his sin,(2) and apprehension of the mercy of God in Christ,(3) doth, with grief and hatred of his sin, turn from it unto God,(4) with full purpose of, and endeavour after, new obedience.(5)

(1) Acts 11:18

(2) Acts 2:37,38

(3) Joel 2:12; Jer. 3:22

(4) Jer. 31:18,19

(5) Ezek. 36:31


WSC 88 ▬ What are the outward means whereby Christ communicateth to us the benefits of redemption?

A. The outward and ordinary means whereby Christ communicateth to us the benefits of redemption, are his ordinances, especially the word, sacraments, and prayer; all which are made effectual to the elect for salvation.(1)

(1) Matt. 28:19,20; Acts 2:42,46,47


WSC 89 ▬ How is the word made effectual to salvation?

A. The Spirit of God maketh the reading, but especially the preaching of the word, an effectual means of convincing and converting sinners, and of building them up in holiness and comfort, through faith, unto salvation.(1)

(1) Neh. 8:8; 1 Cor. 14:24,25; Acts 26:18; Ps. 19:8; Acts 20:32; Rom. 15:4; 2 Tim. 3:15-17; Rom. 10:-17; Rom. 1:16


WSC 90 ▬ How is the word to be read and heard, that it may become effectual to salvation?

A. That the word may become effectual to salvation, we must attend thereunto with diligence,(1) preparation,(2) and prayer;(3) receive it with faith and love,(4) lay it up in our hearts,(5) and practice it in our lives.(6)

(1) Prov. 8:34

(2) 1 Pet. 2:1,2

(3) Ps. 119:18

(4) Heb. 4:2; 2 Thess. 2:10

(5) Ps. 119:11

(6) Luke 8:15; James 1:25


WSC 91 ▬ How do the sacraments become effectual means of salvation?

A. The sacraments become effectual means of salvation, not from any virtue in them, or in him that doth administer them; but only by the blessing of Christ,(1) and the working of his spirit in them that by faith receive them.(2)

(1) 1 Pet. 3:21; Matt. 3:11; 1 Cor. 3:6,7

(2) 1 Cor. 12:13


WSC 92 ▬ What is a sacrament?

A. A sacrament is an holy ordinance instituted by Christ, wherein, by sensible signs, Christ, and the benefits of the new covenant, are represented, sealed, and applied to believers.(1)

(1) Gen. 17:7,10; Exod. 12:throughout; 1 Cor. 11:23,26


WSC 93 ▬ Which are the sacraments of the New Testament?

A. The sacraments of the New Testament are, Baptism,(1) and the Lord's supper.(2)

(1) Matt. 28:19

(2) Matt. 26:26-28


WSC 94 ▬ What is baptism ?

A. Baptism is a sacrament, wherein the washing with water in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost,(1) doth signify and seal our ingrafting into Christ, and partaking of the benefits of the covenant of grace, and our engagement to be the Lord's.(2)

(1) Matt. 28:19

(2) Rom. 6:4; Gal. 3:27


WSC 95 ▬ To whom is baptism to be administered?

A. Baptism is not to be administered to any that are out of the visible church, till they profess their faith in Christ, and obedience to him;(1) but the infants of such as are members of the visible church are to be baptized.(2)

(1) Acts 8:36,37; Acts 2:38

(2) Acts 2:38,39; Gen. 17:10 compared with Col. 2:11,12; 1 Cor. 7:14


WSC 96 ▬ What is the Lord's supper?

A. The Lord's supper is a sacrament, wherein, by giving and receiving bread and wine, according to Christ's appointment, his death is showed forth; and the worthy receivers are, not after a corporal and carnal manner, but by faith, made partakers of his body and blood, with all his benefits, to their spiritual nourishment, and growth in grace.(1)

(1) 1 Cor. 11:23-26; 1 Cor. 10:16


WSC 97 ▬ What is required to the worthy receiving of the Lord's supper?

A. It is required of them that would worthily partake of the Lord's supper, that they examine themselves of their knowledge to discern the Lord's body,(1) of their faith to feed upon him,(2) of their repentance,(3) love,(4) and new obedience;(5) lest, coming unworthily, they eat and drink judgment to themselves.(6)

(1) 1 Cor. 11:28,29

(2) 2 Cor. 13:5

(3) 1 Cor. 11:31

(4) 1 Cor. 10:16,17

(5) 1 Cor. 5:7,8

(6) 1 Cor. 11:28,29


WSC 98 ▬ What is prayer?

A. Prayer is an offering up of our desires unto God,(1) for things agreeable to his will,(2) in the name of Christ,(3) with confession of our sins,(4) and thankful acknowledgment of his mercies.(5)

(1) Ps. 62:8

(2) 1 John 5:14

(3) John 16:23

(4) Ps. 32:5,6; Dan. 9:4

(5) Phil. 4:6


WSC 99 ▬ What rule hath God given for our direction in prayer?

A. The whole word of God is of use to direct us in prayer,(1) but the special rule of direction is that form of prayer which Christ taught his disciples, commonly called The Lord's prayer.(2)

(1) 1 John 5:14

(2) Matt. 6:9-18 compared with Luke 11:2-4


WSC 100 ▬ What doth the preface of the Lord's prayer teach us?

A. The preface of the Lord's prayer (which is, Our Father which art in heaven(1)) teacheth us to draw near to God with all holy reverence and confidence, as children to a father, able and ready to help us;(2) and that we should pray with and for others.(3)

(1) Matt. 6:9

(2) Rom. 8:15; Luke 11:13

(3) Acts 12:5; 1 Tim. 2:1,2 


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