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Origin of the Species
Arthur S. Lodge's Search
for a Definition of Evolution
In his web site Arthur S. Lodge, a respected academic, documents his search for
a definition of the Neo-Darwinian Theory of Evolution ("NDT", the standard
model). Here are his findings:
I have had some difficulty in finding out what people mean by the NDT. Norman
Macbeth stated that "About 1930, they put together something that was generally
known as the Synthetic Theory, and that has been the dominant idea ever since,
for fifty years. It is rather strange to say this, but the Synthetic Theory has
never been formulated. It was a vague consensus that was never formulated in any
detail." (Darwinism: A Time for Funerals, Broadside Edition, Robert Briggs
Associates, San Francisco, 1982, p.3)
In the Preface (p.xiii, last paragraph) to The Evolutionary Synthesis (E. Mayr &
W. B. Provine, Harvard University Press, 2nd Edition, 1998), Ernst Mayr wrote
that "the synthesis is nothing but a confirmation of Darwin's original theory".
I could find no definition of the NDT in this book. When I asked Will Provine
(in 2001) for a definition, he replied that it was not easy to give a simple
Elsewhere, Mayr also wrote: "Darwinism is not a simple theory that is either
true or false but is rather a highly complex research program that is
continuously being modified and improved". E. Mayr (1988) Toward a New
Philosophy of Biology (Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge,
Massachusetts), p. 535.
Francisco Ayala writes: "The modern theory of evolution....is an amalgam of
well-established theories and working hypotheses..." (Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. vol.
102, suppl. 1, May 3, 2005, p.6515). I sent an email asking how many theories
and hypotheses are in his amalgam. He replied to my emails, but did not give me
any number in answer to this question.
Douglas Futuyma (Evolutionary Biology, 3rd edition,1998, pp.26,27; Sinauer
Associates, Sunderland MA) listed 20 items which he said were (a) "Major Tenets
of the Evolutionary Synthesis" and (b) "the orthodox modern theory of
evolution". The list cannot be complete, however, because it includes no common
Michael Majerus (Melanism: Evolution in Action, Oxford University Press, 1998,
p.78) gives a half-page, unreferenced definition of the NDT that differs from
that given above; it contains no mention of common descent or random,
spontaneous mutation. His NDT is apparently an adjustable theory, for he states
"The Darwinian and neo-Darwinian theories have been amended in various ways, for
specific cases or sets of cases". In an e-mail sent on May 7, 2002, I asked if
it is possible to test the validity of an adjustable theory; I have not yet
received a reply.
Elliott Sober (The Nature of Selection, University of Chicago Press, 1984, p.22,
paragraph 2) and Philip Kitcher (Abusing Science, MIT Press, Cambridge MA, 1982,
p.18) refer to the modern synthesis and state how it arose but do not define the
Mr Pun on a web site states that "the modern synthetic theory version of the NDT
was not formulated systematically until the publication of Dobzhansky's Genetics
and the Origin of Species" (T. Dobzhansky, 3rd Edition, Columbia University
Press, New York and London, 1951). This book contains a definition of the
"Theory of Evolution" involving 4 and only 4 points with no mention of random
mutation or natural selection (p.11, para.2); this is not. therefore, a
definition of the NDT. Moreover, the book's index contains no mention of the NDT
or any of its synonyms. I think, therefore, that Mr Pun is mistaken.
The Oxford English Dictionary and Webster's Dictionary do not define the NDT or
The 2002 book Gene Avatars: the Neo-Darwinian Theory of Evolution does not
formulate or define the NDT.
Philip Johnson defines his use of the term Darwinism as "fully naturalistic
evolution, involving chance mechanisms guided by natural selection."
This version of the NDT definition is the result of discussions with my
colleague Professor James F. Crow. He considers that this version is a fair
representation of evolutionists' current thought.
The Neo-Darwinian Theory: Version 2004
Part 1: All living organisms on Earth today are descended from
Part 2: The processes of descent in Part 1 involved very large,
but unknown, numbers of steps, mostly small.
Part 3: We do not yet know what steps led to the formation of
the first self-replicating entity, but, from then on, the sole sources of
novelty in Part 2 have been random, spontaneous, heritable, changes in genomes
and other hereditary materials.
Part 4: Histories of descent, following these changes,
involved, or depended on, one or more of the following factors: The "Natural
Definition: Mutation = heritable change in a genome or other
The Neo-Darwinian Theory of Evolution
The Synthetic Theory of Evolution
The Evolutionary Synthesis
The above formulation is incomplete until the term natural selection has been
defined. I can find no agreed definition in the literature (see
What is Natural Selection?).
Books (e.g., Endler, Sober) have been written to answer this question!